Linda tuhiwai smith imperialism history writing and theory

The author describes the devastating effects of such research on indigenous peoples and articulates a new Indigenous Research Agenda which aims to replace former Western academic methods. Research Through Imperial Eyes -- 3.

Notes from Down Under 6. She begins by noting that research is typically understood as objective, value-free and scientific: in other words, our ideas about research are drawn from positivism The author gives a brief survey of recent initiatives for reassertion of Maori cultural identity.

Within the programme are a number of very distinct projects. The significance of place, of land, of landscape, of other things in the universe, in defining the very essence of a people, makes for a very different rendering of the term essentialism as used by indigenous peoples.

Imperialism history writing and theory summary

The eighth research project is revitalizing and regenerating: specifically, revitalizing and regenerating Indigenous languages, arts, and cultural practices Ultimately, the debate is about the unequal power of defining, essentializing, labeling and thus alienating the other. Imperialism acted in a sequence of impacts: military conquest was followed by the destruction or deliberate undervaluing of a peoples culture, and finally the youngest carriers of a non-Western heritage, children, were targeted through colonial education. All of those models, she notes, assume that indigenous people are involved in the research in key and often senior roles. Article copyright Cultural Survival, Inc. An indigenous woman, the daughter of a Maori anthropologist, she grew up in a world in which science and Maori beliefs and practices coexisted. Yet a continuing stance of total exclusion of the non-indigenous social scientist or lawyer might prove to be a detriment to the worldwide minorities of indigenous origin. In its clear links to Western knowledge research has generated a particular relationship to indigenous peoples which continues to be problematic. Testimonies intersect with claiming because they are a way to present oral testimony, usually about painful events The rules governing such evaluation are often implicit, and power is expressed both explicitly and implicitly She writes that, in the current moment, [w]hile the West might be experiencing fragmentation, the process of fragmentation known under its older guise as colonization is well known to indigenous peoples. They have the power to distort, to make invisible, to overlook, to exaggerate and to draw conclusions, based not on factual data, but on assumptions, hidden value judgements, and often downright misunderstandings. There is also the issue of insider versus outsider research: outsider research typically presumed to be objective and neutral The dominance of Western, British culture, and the history that underpins the relationship between indigenous Maori and non-indigenous Pakeha, have made it extremely difficult for Maori forms of knowledge and learning to be accepted as legitimate.

Who says so? In a cross-cultural context, researchers need to ask themselves a series of questions: Who defined the research problem? Since the publication of the first edition inDecolonizing Methodologies has been used to stimulate far-reaching discussions within Indigenous contexts, academic institutions, non-government organizations and other community-based groups about the knowledge claims of disciplines and approaches, about the content of knowledge, about absences, silences and invisibilities of other peoples, about practices and ethics, and about the implications for communities of research.

The Western tradition of knowledge is grounded in positivism, the notion that research is an objective and value-free activity that can make sense of human and natural realities.

Linda tuhiwai smith research through imperial eyes

Who has designed its questions and framed its scope? Research has not been neutral in its objectification of the Other. For Indigenous peoples, Tuhiwai Smith contends, research is a site of struggle: As a site of struggle research has a significance for indigenous peoples that is embedded in our history under the gaze of Western imperialism and Western science. Nor can they be complicated, internally diverse or contradictory. He argues that non-indigenous people, generally speaking, have an obligation to support Maori research as Treaty partners. Tuhiwai Smith questions the premise that Western research was collected for the greater good of serving all of mankind: the ways and the spirit in which data were collected around the colonized world, guided by notions of classification and progressive evolution of mankind, reflected less the cultural realities of the colonized, than contemporaneous Western constructions of gender, race and class. Notes Includes bibliographical references and index. Who will benefit from it? Recent years have seen a number of ethical research guidelines being established, such as the AAA Code of Ethics. In setting an agenda for planning and implementing indigenous research, the author shows how such programmes are part of the wider project of reclaiming control over indigenous ways of knowing and being. The author describes the devastating effects of such research on indigenous peoples and articulates a new Indigenous Research Agenda which aims to replace former Western academic methods. Yet a continuing stance of total exclusion of the non-indigenous social scientist or lawyer might prove to be a detriment to the worldwide minorities of indigenous origin.

By framing Kaupapa Maori within the Treaty of Waitangi, Bishop leaves space for the involvement of non-indigenous researchers in support of Maori research. One question is whether a non-Indigenous researcher carry out Kaupapa Maori research.

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Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples